„Das Massaker von Odessa“

Diesen Namen trägt eine Wanderausstellung von Oleh Muzyka, ein Überlebender des Gewerkschaftshausbrandes in der ukrainischen Stadt Odessa, die in zahlreichen europäischen Hauptstädten zu sehen war. Als ich zum ersten Mal von den tragischen Ereignissen hörte und mir das „Massaker“ auf Video anschaute, überfiel mich Wut und Trauer und ich fing an sämtliche deutschsprachige Zeitungsartikel zu dem Thema zu lesen. Schnell fiel mir auf, dass in diesen nur von „Ausschreitungen” und „Zusammenstößen” die Rede war. Es wurde auf eine Art und Weise berichtet, dass man meinen könnte „der ganz normale Wahnsinn”, Kämpfe zwischen Maidanunterstützern und -gegnern, hätten sich dort an diesem zweiten Mai, letzten Samstag vor einem Jahr, abgespielt. Die Ereignisse waren wesentlich komplexer als diese Medienberichte verlauteten, man nehme beispielsweise die Ankunft zahlreicher militanter Maidanaktivisten ins Visier, die eigens für die Kämpfe mit Bussen nach Odessa reisten. Um diesen medialen Verzerrungen entgegenzuwirken hatte ich das Glück die Ergebnisse des Rechercheteams „Gruppe zweiter Mai” ins Englische übersetzt zu bekommen. Diese Gruppe besteht aus lokalen Journalisten, welche sich eine objektive Aufklärung der Ereignisse dieses zweiten Mais in Odessa zum Ziel gesetzt hat. Neben der Gruppe hat es zwei weitere Untersuchungen gegeben: eine von der Regierung, dessen Untersuchung sehr zügig als abgeschlossen galt und in meinen Augen absolut unzureichend war und eine internationale. Einem Bericht der Vereinten Nationen, welche sich unter Anderem auf die Ereignisse nach dem zweiten Mai konzentriert, beispielsweise die Inhaftierung und die Anhörung vor Gericht einiger Beteiligter, ist zu entnehmen, dass fast nur Aktivisten des Kulikovo-Platzes inhaftiert wurden, wobei die Euromaidan-Sympathisanten überwiegend verschont blieben. Mit anderen Worten: die Menschen, die in dem brennenden Haus waren, wurden angeklagt, diejenigen die das Haus einkreisten, attackierten und stürmten, konnten nach den Kämpfen gemütlich den Heimweg antreten…

Im nachfolgenden Text ist die vollständige Übersetzung odessitischer Zeitungsberichte (Dumskaya) ins Englische, welche die Ergebnisse der „Gruppe zweiter Mai” als chronologische Abfolge der Ereignisse wiedergibt. (PDF-Dokument siehe: Dumskaya, Quellen: hier und hier.

Under  the term „Kulikovo Field“ and „Anti-Maidan“ the authors understand the organizations and people who support ideas of federalization of Ukraine, and/or creation on its territory independent state institutions, and support actions of activists of the tent town which was located on the square Kulikovo field in Odessa in February-April, 2014. The term „Euromaidan“ authors determine as the organizations and people who support the unitary and/or the European integration of Ukraine and/or preservation of external borders of the state and support actions of activists — participants of mass protest actions („Maidan“) of 2013-2014 in Kiev and Odessa. The term „ultras“ authors is used for ultra-fanatical football fans. „The second May group“ (experts and journalists) makes investigation of circumstances of the tragedy in Odessa. Here is detailed chronology of events on May 2 which covers events on Kulikovo field and at the Trade Unions Building.

CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS ON KULIKOVO FIELD At 15:00 on May 2 on Kulikovo field a concert for Afghan soldiers was announced. The total amount of the audience was approximately 100 people. After the concert’s beginning about fifty young men in outfit gathered in tents and moved to the Grecheskaya square. Approximately at 15:35. Artem Davidchenko informed  from the stage about  the clashes, which began in the center. The activists who received information on events from mass media from social networks started to gather on Kulikovo field. The number of people rapidly increases. The organized group of activists of the Anti-Maidan of the „National community “ which earlier did not take part in collisions on foot goes on Aleksandrovsky Avenue towards Grecheskaya Square. On the crossing of streets the column is trapped by «Self-defense group». After short collision Self-defense forces out the opponents and the majority of them comes back to Kulikovo field. The group of activists of the Anti-Maidan moves forward towards Grecheskaya Square on the car „Chrysler. The activists of the Council of Public Safety organization block the car and demand from the police to check the car. In the car hunting knives, traumatic guns and pump guns were found. The Self-defense  group of Euromaidan moves in the direction of Kulikovo field. After receiving information about victims around Grecheskaya, the column of Self-defense comes back to the area of Grecheskaya Square. Supporters of the Anti-Maidan continue to gather on Kulikovo field. The audience tries to make the decision about the further actions by voting. 18:00. The Kulikovo field becomes Information about victims among activists. Artem Davidchenko offers further actions: or for all to disperse or to ask women and old people to go home and to others to take positions in the Trade Unions Building. All present people (mainly women and people of aldery age) reject such offers. The active phase of collisions on Grecheskaya Square comes to an end at 18:20. The  Kulikovo field gets the information about the big groups of football fans and activists of Euromaidan following their direction. at 18:40 guardians of the tent town appeal to the security guard of the Trade Unions Building to hide crosses and icons which were in tents of the orthodox organizations. The security guard accepts chapel and locks doors. at 18:50 gathered on Kulikovo field make a final decision to use the building of the Trade Unions Building for defense. They break entrance doors, start bringing to the building things from tents, including the electric generators, canisters with gasoline, boxes with Molotov cocktails and canisters with ingredients for their production, mattresses, medicines. The small group of activists of Kulikovo field takes defensive positions behind the barricade. One of leaders of Kulikovo field Artem Davidchenko comes into the building, however then hastily leaves Kulikovo field on white car. 19:20. The first unorganized groups of football fans and activists of Euromaidan arrive to the square Kulikovo field from stadium and from the central city streets. The groups of football fans and activists of Euromaidan who arrived to the square start destroying tents and some property. From first minute of collision both sides use stones, alarm rockets and Molotov cocktails. Approximately at 19:25 Both sides use self-made means (bottles and rockets). One of tents lights up. 19:30. On Kulikovo field three tents burn, the pro-Ukrainian activists dismantle a stage. Unidentified people on the rooftop continue to throw down Molotov cocktails to the square. From the square to barricade fly bottles near to the entrance and towards windows of the 2 floors. The spontaneous group of five fans of „Chernomorets“, gets into the building. One of them has the Ukrainian flag. After getting up to the fourth floor, they get in free „green hall“ ( two top floors of front part of the Trade Unions Building) 19:31. The service of rescue and emergency 101 gets messages about burning tents on Kulikovo field . 19:32. The Odessa local police station receive information from cameras about mass violations of public order on Kulikovo field with amount of participation  1000 people. 19:33. On Kulikovo field 5 tents burn. In one of them there is a cylinder with the liquefied gas. Because of whistling sound of gas people run away from tents, on the other side of the Trade Unions Building. The part of a barricade at front lights up. People on a barricade continue to defend actively, using self-made grenades — the thunder flashes filled with the striking elements. Five more messages to the line 101 arrive. 19:37. The big group of the pro-Ukrainian activists goes to the other side of the building and break entrance door. They attack in the presence of journalists and  try to break doors of offices of 1 floor and bring the woman out. The people who are on the second floor resist and use „Molotov cocktail“ in the building. 19:40. Violent confrontations between football fans and the pro-Ukrainian activists with the people who are in the building near the central entrance begin. Both sides use Molotov cocktails, supporters of Kulikovo field throw them from a roof and from a lobby on the first floor. The activists of Kulikovo field defending a barricade gradually go deep in the foyer. In a lobby of the first floor of the building they hastily barricade doors and arrange a big barricade from furniture opposite to the central entrance to the Trade Unions Building. Group of the pro-Ukrainian activists, hiding behind fence, makes attempts getting into the yard of the building through gates. Shots are heard. According to witnesses, one of the pro-Ukrainian activists gets a bullet in a leg. All the attempts fail. 19:44. The Department of Internal Affairs of the city reports Emergency Management Agency about need immediately send fire trucks to Kulikovo field. Emergency Management Agency ignores this message. 19:45. The line 101  gests the first message about the fire in the Trade Unions Building — inflammation from thrown bottles in windows of the second floor. At the same time there is an inflammation in the left part of the foyer. 19.46. On Kulikovo field near the Trade Unions Building there are police officers, which don’t take any active actions and don’t interfere the following events. 19:47. Near the left (southern) side the quick running shooting, within ten seconds 15 shots was heard. 19:49. Fire covers the left external door. The pro-Ukrainian activists crashed aside supporters of Kulikovo field from front part into the building, one of them (supporters) throw the burning tire in the central entrance of the Trade Unions Building. 19:50. On video the flame reflection behind the closed window in a room window on the second floor of the Trade Unions Building is visible. During next building searches conducted by members „the second may group“ the centers of inflammation and signs of the fire in the room behind a window it was not revealed. 19:51. Five pro-Ukrainian activists who came into „the green hall“ of the Trade Unions Building earlier, are blocked by fire and a smoke. They prepare for evacuation through windows and call by phone for the aid. Also they show their location by  exposing in a window national flag of Ukraine. People on the square meet a flag with shouts „Glory to Ukraine!“. Till 19:52 6 more calls about the fire in the building. 19:52. There is an inflammation of a barricade in a lobby on the 1 floor near the central entrance. All three external doors of the central entrance to the Trade Unions Building are lightened up. Fire spreads on part of a lobby, distant from doors, in the direction of the main ladder. 19:53. From the opened and broken windows of front part of the building comes fume. 19:54. Strong inflammation is observed. Temperature on platforms of a ladder quickly increases to hundreds of degrees; the people who are near windows start jumping out. In just few seconds fire completely covers ladder the ground and second floor. Temperature reaches 600 degrees at the level of the first floor and 200-250 degrees on a ladder and a platform of the 5th floor. Within a minute not less than 10 people jump out. From the moment of the beginning of fumes some tens pro-Ukrainian activists, police officers and military start taking out wounded and bodies of the dead from a dangerous zone. 19:56. One more call to the line 101 ….,which demands immediate sending of fire-fighting crews to Kulikovo field. The command on departure of one office of rescuers is given (500 meters from Kulikovo field). 4 more messages to the line 101, reporting that people jump out of the burning building. 19:59. The people who are in the filled with fume rooms of 2 and 3 floors of frontal part of the building (7-11 meters from  the earth) asking for help. Activists of Euromaidan try to throw them ropes and collect improvised subjects for evacuation. Storm of the burning building stops. 20:06. The people who are on the third floor of the building manage to throw a rope. People on the square are cheered up and applause. Evacuation of people from front part of the Trade Unions Building begins. From the top windows and a roof of the building continue to throw stones, glasses and improvised subjects that makes  evacuation more complicated. In the building- firearms. The activist of Euromaidan gets wounded by the hunting weapon by a bullet of the 12th caliber from the Trade Unions Building window. 20:08. The young man in a mask tries to throw a bottle with gas mixture in a window on the third floor of the building. Activists who evacuate people from the Trade Unions Building, herd him away from the building. The people who are on a roof continue to throw down stones. On the square in front of the building a battalion of police build a cordon and push the pro-Ukrainian activists. One tank of water and autoladder are send. Fire truck arrives to the back of the building of the Trade Unions Building. 20:11. The pro-Ukrainian activists drag metal constructions of a stage which were on Kulikovo field. The first construction at the left, then the second — to the right side of the central entrance. It reaches the level of a window of the second floor that simplifies evacuations of people from a parapet and from windows. 20:14. The first fire truck appears about front part of the Trade Unions Building. 20:16. Activists of Euromaidan on the left side try to establish a construction to reach the third floor where the biggest part of the people remain. 20:17. Five football fans blocked by fire and a fume in „the green hall“ again show the presence, swinging Ukrainian a flag from a window of the fourth floor. 20:18. To Kulikovo field arrives the second fire truck. Activists remove from it a ladder and establish it on a wall on the left side of a building facade. It allows to evacuate people from the left (southern) part 3 floors of the building. 20:19. Firefighters using sliding ladder begin evacuation of people from the filled with smoke rooms on the second floor of the right side of front part of the building. A person falls from ledge of window on the fifth floor of the building. The falling is in-coordinate — most likely, the dead was unconscious. 20:22. Police officers build a cordon, using force, pushing aside the pro-Ukrainian activists from the central entrance and a facade of the building. 20.24. Firefighters and the pro-Ukrainian activists evacuate the people who were on the third floor and in strongly filled with smoke rooms over the central entrance on the second floor of the building. Police officers and organized activists try to protect evacuated from harsh treatment. 20:25. To the line 101 the call from the people who are on the third floor of the building with a request of help. 20.26. The fire-fighting crew extinguished entrance doors of the Trade Unions Building. Evacuation of people goes on. On three minibuses „Volkswagen“ arrive from back of the building , the group of the armed people as the forces „Alpha“ and with yellow bandages on hands.  These people carry out the operation similar to detention, and take out at least one person in civil clothes without any symbolics. No further information is given. 20:31. Rescuers enter the building. The pro-Ukrainian activists start searching the building in search of victims, give activists of the Kulikovy field first aid and bring out of the building, then transfer to police officers. 20.35. Firefighters extinguish the local centers of inflammation in the building. From an office No. 432 window sounds of fight and calls for help are heard. Near gate of a backyard of the Trade Unions Building the circle is formed of the pro-Ukrainian activists in center of which there are activists of Kulikovo field who left the building. The pro-Ukrainian activists search, interrogate and punch opponents. 0:47. On a flagstaff the Ukrainian flag is hanged out. slogans „Odessa-is Ukraine!“, an applause, national anthem. 20:53. In a circle there are about 12 beaten people. Out of the building continue to bring activists of Kulikovo field, some of the audience punch them. 21:05. Evacuation of seriously wounded from the Trade Unions Building, among them — one pro-Ukrainian activist with injuries. 21:07. Firefighters report to journalists about victims in the building. 21.45 — Police officers, military troops and activists of Self-defense build a corridor from the back of the building that allows to bring out of the Trade Unions Building of activists of Kulikovo field rather safely. Approximately at 22:10 the group of activists of the pro-Ukrainian organizations of Odessa and the Nikolaev Self-defense by buses go to a memorial 411 coastal batteries on the suburb of Odessa where there is a tent town „Odessa community“. In the tent were found documents, the weapon in boxes, gas masks …. Other property which is in the tent town is transferred to military unit.

The specialists of Head department of Public service of Ukraine of emergency situations informed that actions of federalization supporters on the top floors of the building are a probable cause of the fire in the Trade Unions Building. It was mentioned “From the top floors torwards ordinary people Molotov cocktails  were thrown …Usage of „Molotov cocktails“ was result of fire. On May 7 Interior Ministers Arsen Avakov reported that the former chief of the Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine for Odessa region Dmitry Fuchedzhi ran out from Ukraine. The deputy chief of GSU Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine Vitaly Sakal at a press conference confirmed that in the Trade Unions Building in Odessa investigators found chloroform. Substance traces of were in the garbage and ashes from the building…. As the chairman of monitoring mission of the UN during presentation reported that research of events almost doesn’t move ahead. „with regret we report about lack of cooperation from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and SBU at the heading level“.

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2 Antworten zu „Das Massaker von Odessa“

  1. Pingback: Gedenken an das Massaker von Odessa | Grübelstübchen

  2. Pingback: Auftrags“selbst“mord in der Ukraine- Teil 2 | Grübelstübchen

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